2017年 12月 20日


adminfeast WG3_Publications

11月6日~7日に米国カリフォルニア大学バークレー校(以下、UCB)にて、地球研とUCBの交流提携締結を記念して開催された第1回国際ワークショップ「Food, Agriculture, and Human Impacts on the Environment: Japan, Asia and Beyond」にて、WG3チェアの田村典江上級研究員、小林舞研究員、ダニエル・ナイルズ十教授がWG3の研究成果を発表しました。

Part I. Food and Agriculture/ 第1部食と農

Session 2. Organic agriculture and scale: Balancing environmental and consumer demands/セッション2 有機農業とスケール:環境要求事項と消費者需要のバランス

小林舞 「ブータンと『オーガニックな』農業との関係から見えてくるもの/What we see from Bhutan and its relationship with ‘organic’ agriculture」


(原文)Bhutan has been portrayed as a “lighthouse” in the world of organic agriculture since its announcement to go 100% organic at the Rio+20 conference in 2012. Taking advantage of the fame gained in adopting a post-growth Gross National Happiness development strategy and an agriculture characterized by low input small scale farming, the Bhutanese Ministry of Agriculture and Forests initiated a policy to promote organic agriculture in 2006. At the same time, the ever-increasing pressures to modernize agricultural production and grow the national economy has influenced the social discourse on “organic agriculture” in the country and threatened to reduce it to a mere marketing strategy to sell “Brand Bhutan.” This paper will trace Bhutan’s shifting relationship to development and food security through looking at the top-down policy level discourse, and the ways in which farmers have been variously modifying, adapting, adjusting, and resisting such pressures. Research is based on fieldwork conducted in Bhutan in 2014 and interviews and literature review conducted in and around Bhutan since then.

Session 3. Food policy supporting the future of sustainable agriculture/セッション3 持続可能な農の未来を支える食料政策

田村典江 「日本における農業政策の未来の指針:格差、スケール、目標/Agricultural policy and future directions in Japan: gaps, scales and destinations」

要旨:(原文)現代の日本の農業は、農業産出額の減少、耕作放棄地の増加、農家数の減少、農業従事者の高齢化、後継者不足などで特徴づけられている。一方で、日本は世界最大の食料純輸入国で、カロリーベースの食料自給率は39%であり、食農体系の持続可能性が問われている。また少子高齢化のなかで、農業の衰退は農村地域の衰退を招き、地方の自立やレジリエンスを危うくしている。このような現状に対し、日本政府は、2011年以降、「農業の成長産業化」をキーワードとして、政策の刷新を行っている。政府の展望は、大規模集約化、効率化、高い生産性、高い付加価値、ハイテク化などに特徴づけられる農業の近代化が実現されれば、日本の農業が市場競争の勝者となり、自動的に食料自給率や農村振興などの目的も実現されるというものである。しかしこのような政府の政策には2つの問題がある。まず具体的な地理的条件に規定される市町村において、受け入れられるものなのかどうか。次に、アグロエコロジーやfood sovereigntyの視点にかけており、地域の自律や自給につながらないのではないか。そこで、市町村レベルでの農業政策について調査し、(1)国の政策とギャップがあるかどうか、(2)アグロエコロジーやfood sovereigntyの促進につながる政策があるかどうかについて調査した。調査は現在も継続中であり、今回の報告ではこれまでに得られた結果について述べる。これまでに得られた市町村の政策では、国が展望する「輸出」、「グローバル展開」、「企業参入」などのキーワードは積極的には謳われていなかった。グローバルマーケットへの適応は市町村レベルではそれほど重視されていないと考えられる。一方で、「都市農村交流」、「移住・定住」などは多くの市町村で描かれるビジョンであった。国とは異なり、市町村の政策方向は、農業を通じて新たなつながりを創り出すrecommoning of foodや、地産地消など新たな流通経路によるdecommodification of food を目指しているといえる。政策アイディアとしては、国よりも市町村のほうがより、agroecologyやfood sovereigntyを意識していることがわかった。今後はより大規模な調査を実施し、市町村の政策においてそれらのアイディアがどのように位置づけられているかを把握するとともに、新しい政策アイディアが市町村の転換を促す事例を収集することで、より多くの市町村の農業政策の転換を促すような政策提言につなげたい。

(英訳)Agriculture in Japan today is characterized by a decline in an agricultural output, increasing abandoned farmland, a shrinking and aging population of farmers, and a lack of farm successors. Japan is one of the biggest net importers of agriproducts and its food self-sufficiency ratio on a calorie basis is only 39%. Taken in combination, Japan’s overall food security is weak, the declining agricultural sector results in decaying rural areas, and subsequently jeopardizes the country’s long-term sustainability and resilience. The Government of Japan has been overhauling agricultural policies since 2011 within the framework of “Transformation of agriculture, forestry, and fisheries into growth industries.” From the government’s perspective, if Japan’s agriculture becomes highly-industrialized through large-scale intensification, improved output efficiency, a high level of productivity, production of high added-value products and the deployment of more innovative technology into agriculture, it can compete in the mainstream global marketplace, and then achieve the objectives of greater self-sufficiency and rural development. However, such a policy strategy has two problems: Firstly, is it applicable to different municipalities characterized by diversified and unique geographical conditions? Secondly, will it really lead to a sustainable future in rural areas if concepts such as agroecology and food sovereignty are not taken into account? This study was conducted to investigate agricultural policy at the municipal level with two specific objectives: (1) to find out whether there are gaps in agricultural policy between the national and municipal level, and (2) to evaluate whether municipal level policies promote agroecology and food sovereignty. This study is still under way, and the results obtained thus far will be presented. A text analysis of policy documents shows that the municipal governments do not proactively advocate exporting food products, competing in global food markets, or the entry of corporations into the agricultural sector as opposed to the national government. On the other hand, “urban-rural exchange” and “migration and settlement” are found quite common in policy at the municipal level. It could be argued that unlike the national level, the municipal-level policy aims at the “re-commoning of food,” which generates new linkages between rural areas and urban citizens through engagement in agriculture, and the “de-commodification of food” by entirely new distribution channels such as chisan chisho (local production for local consumption). The results also indicate that the municipal governments are more concerned about agroecology and food sovereignty as a guiding idea for policy compared to the national government. To understand how these ideas are positioned in municipal-level policy, and to collect data on various cases of how these new policy ideas promote transition of the municipal governments, further research on a larger scale is planned. This research ultimately attempts to develop policy recommendations to promote transition of agricultural policy at the municipal level.

Part II. Heritage and Human Impacts on the Environment/第2部 文化遺産と人類の環境への影響

Session 4. Landscape, Materiality & Traditional Ecological Knowledge/セッション4 ランドスケープ、物質、伝統知

ダニエル・ナイルズ/Daniel Niles 「コントロールという概念を超えて :農業遺産とアンソロポシーン/Beyond control: agricultural heritage and the Anthropocene」


(原文)The idea of the Anthropocene has swept through the natural and social sciences and even the humanities as have few concepts in recent memory. While it can be understood to boost the technocentric ideal of human control of the biosphere, the concept is also deeply unsettling to modern science, as it presents the possibility of a nature veering entirely out of control. In opening up such different views of nature and human-nature relationships, the Anthropocene presents an unusual epistemological opportunity. Interestingly, to date the word has remarkably little resonance in Asia. Why might this be the case? This paper explores agricultural heritage zones (of Asia, and other regions) as examples of some of humankind’s most sustainable cultural-ecological experience. In epistemological terms, this knowledge, accrued over millennia, is still little understood. Closer attention to its diverse forms and workings can expand our understanding of contemporary agri-environmental challenges and our Anthropocene imaginaries.


Read More